Jump to Navigation

Arson Offense

2C:17-1. Arson and related offenses


a. Aggravated arson. A person is guilty of aggravated arson, a crime of the second degree, if he starts a fire or causes an explosion, whether on his own property or another's:


(1) Thereby purposely or knowingly placing another person in danger of death or bodily injury; or


(2) With the purpose of destroying a building or structure of another; or


(3) With the purpose of collecting insurance for the destruction or damage to such property under circumstances which recklessly place any other person in danger of death or bodily injury; or


(4) With the purpose of destroying or damaging a structure in order to exempt the structure, completely or partially, from the provisions of any State, county or local zoning, planning or building law, regulation, ordinance or enactment under circumstances which recklessly place any other person in danger of death or bodily injury; or


(5) With the purpose of destroying or damaging any forest.


b. Arson. A person is guilty of arson, a crime of the third degree, if he purposely starts a fire or causes an explosion, whether on his own property or another's:


(1) Thereby recklessly placing another person in danger of death or bodily injury; or


(2) Thereby recklessly placing a building or structure of another in danger of damage or destruction; or


(3) With the purpose of collecting insurance for the destruction or damage to such property; or


(4) With the purpose of destroying or damaging a structure in order to exempt the structure, completely or partially, from the provisions of any State, county or local zoning, planning or building law, regulation, ordinance or enactment ; or


(5) Thereby recklessly placing a forest in danger of damage or destruction.


c. Failure to control or report dangerous fire. A person who knows that a fire is endangering life or a substantial amount of property of another and either fails to take reasonable measures to put out or control the fire, when he can do so without substantial risk to himself, or to give prompt fire alarm, commits a crime of the fourth degree if:


(1) He knows that he is under an official, contractual, or other legal duty to prevent or combat the fire; or


(2) The fire was started, albeit lawfully, by him or with his assent, or on property in his custody or control.


d. Any person who, directly or indirectly, pays or accepts or offers to pay or accept any form of consideration including, but not limited to, money or any other pecuniary benefit, regardless of whether any consideration is actually exchanged for the purpose of starting a fire or causing an explosion in violation of this section commits a crime of the first degree.


e. Notwithstanding the provisions of any section of this Title to the contrary, if a person is convicted of aggravated arson pursuant to the provisions of subsection a. of this section and the structure which was the target of the offense was a health care facility or a physician's office, the sentence imposed shall include a term of imprisonment. The court may not suspend or make any other noncustodial disposition of a person sentenced pursuant to the provisions of this subsection.


f. Definitions. "Structure" is defined in section 2C:18-1. Property is that of another, for the purpose of this section, if any one other than the actor has a possessory , or legal or equitable proprietary interest therein. Property is that of another for the purpose of this section, if anyone other than the actor has a legal or equitable interest in the property including, but not limited to, a mortgage, pledge, lien or security interest therein. If a building or structure is divided into separately occupied units, any unit not occupied by the actor is an occupied structure of another.


As used in this section, "forest" means and includes any forest, brush land, grass land, salt marsh, wooded area and any combination thereof, including but not limited to, an open space area, public lands, wetlands, park lands, natural habitats, a State conservation area, a wildlife refuge area or any other designated undeveloped open space whether or not it is subject to specific protection under law.


As used in this section, "health care facility" means health care facility as defined in section 2 of P.L.1971, c. 136 ( C.26:2H-2).


g. Notwithstanding the provisions of any section of this Title to the contrary, if a person is convicted pursuant to the provisions of subsection a., b. or d. of this section and the structure which was the target of the offense was a church, synagogue, temple or other place of public worship, that person commits a crime of the first degree and the sentence imposed shall include a term of imprisonment. The term of imprisonment shall include a minimum term of 15 years, during which the defendant shall be ineligible for parole. The court may not suspend or make any other noncustodial disposition of a person sentenced pursuant to the provisions of this subsection.


(A) Comparison With Aggravated Arson

Arson is a crime of the third degree.[ FN1] There are five types of arson offenses. These offenses differ from the more serious aggravated arson offenses primarily in the requirements of a lesser culpability. All the arson and aggravated arson offenses not only require that the defendant start a fire or cause an explosion but also require that she purposely set a fire or cause the explosion.[ FN2] For both offenses unless the purpose was to set a fire or cause an explosion, there can be no conviction.[ FN3] As in an aggravated arson prosecution the starting of the fire or the causing of an explosion can either be on another person's property or the defendant's own property.[ FN4]
(B) Recklessly Placing Another Person in Danger of Death or Bodily Injury

In the first type of arson offense, in addition to proving that the defendant purposely started a fire or caused an explosion, the state must also prove that the defendant recklessly placed another person in danger of death or bodily injury.[ FN5] In other words, it must prove that the defendant consciously disregarded a substantial and unjustifiable risk that another person was placed in danger of death or bodily injury.[ FN6] For this offense the type of structure or property that is being burned is not material. In addition, it must be another person and not the defendant who is placed in danger of death or bodily injury.
(C) Recklessly Placing Building or Occupied Structure in Danger of Damage or Destruction

In the second type of arson offense, in addition to proving that the defendant purposely started a fire or caused an explosion, the state must prove that the defendant recklessly placed a building or structure of another in danger of damage or destruction.[ FN7] It is the same conscious disregard of a substantial and unjustifiable risk as in the first type of arson offense. A structure means any structure, vehicle, boat, airplane or place adapted for overnight accommodation or the carrying on of a business therein whether or not a person is actually present.[ FN8] The definitions of structure, building and property are the same as in aggravated arson.[ FN9]
(D) Purpose to Collect Insurance

In the third type of arson offense, in addition to proving that the defendant purposely started a fire or caused an explosion, the state must prove that the defendant did it with the purpose of collecting insurance for the destruction or damage to such property.[ FN10] For this offense, it need not be proved that any person was placed in danger of death or bodily injury. For this offense, it need not be a building or structure that is being burned. For example, it could be crops, a stock of merchandise or the contents of the apartment. There is no requirement that the property being burned is the property of the defendant. It should be noted that the statutory language is drafted broadly and will encompass conduct normally not considered arson. Encompassed within the language of this offense is the conduct of burning a camera in a furnace. [ FN11]
(E) Purpose to Exempt Property From Zoning Law Regulation, Ordinance or Enactment

In 1997, the Code of Criminal Justice was amended to add two additional types of arson offenses.[ FN12] For what is now the fourth type of arson offense, in addition to proving that the defendant started the fire or caused the explosion, the state must prove that defendant acted with the purpose of destroying or damaging a structure in order to exempt the structure, completely or partially, from the provisions of any State, county or local zoning, planning or building law, regulation, ordinance or enactment.[ FN13] Unlike the aggravated arson offense which seeks to exempt property from the zoning law, the state need prove that the defendant recklessly placed another person in danger of death or bodily injury.
(F) Recklessly Placed a Forest in Danger of Damage or Destruction

For the fifth type of arson offense, the state must prove one additional element. In addition to the element, that the defendant started the fire or caused the explosion, the state must prove the that the defendant acted recklessly by placing a forest in danger of damage or destruction.[ FN14] For purposes of this offense, a "forest" means and includes any forest, brush land, grass land, salt marsh, wooded area and any combination of these lands. This includes, but is not limited to, an open space area, public lands, wetlands, park lands, natural habitats, a State conservation area, a wildlife refuge area or any designated undeveloped open space whether or not it is subject to specific protection under law.[ FN15] As in the similar aggravated arson offense, the state need not prove that the forest was damaged or destroyed.
(G) Lesser Included Offense and Multiple Convictions

It has been held that the lesser included offense of attempted arson occurred when the defendant solicited a person to burn the building and then pointed out to the person the type of construction of the building, the layout of the building as well as assuring the person that the tenants would be safe and the fire department would not pose any risk to a successful fire.[ FN16] If an emergency services personnel is injured as a result of the arson, the defendant may also be convicted of aggravated assault.[ FN17]
(H) Material Elements

In an arson prosecution the state must prove at least three material elements. First, it must be proved that the defendant started a fire or explosion. Second, it must be proved that it was defendant's purpose to start a fire or explosion. In addition, the state must prove one of five alternatives. One alternative is that defendant placed another person in danger of death or bodily injury and did so in conscious disregard of the substantial and unjustifiable risk of this danger. In the second alternative, the two additional material elements are that the defendant placed a building or structure in danger of damage or destruction and he did so in conscious disregard of the substantial and unjustifiable risk of that danger. The third alternative only requires proof of one additional material element; proof that the defendant acted with a purpose to collect insurance for the destruction or damage to the property. The fourth alternative requires proof that defendant acted with the purpose of destroying or damaging a structure in order to exempt the structure, completely or partially, from the provisions of any State, county or local zoning, planning or building law, regulation, ordinance or enactment. The fifth alternative requires proof that the defendant started the fire or caused the explosion. The state must prove the additional element that the defendant acted recklessly placing a forest in danger of damage or destruction.

[FNa0] Of the New Jersey Bar.


[FN1] See N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b).

[FN2] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b).

[FN3] See § 14.1.

[FN4] Compare N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(a) with N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b).

[FN5] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b)(1).

[FN6] See N.J.S.A. 2C:2-2(b)(3).

[FN7] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b)(2).

[FN8] N.J.S.A. 2C:18-1. State v. Williams, 263 N.J.Super. 620, 626, 623 A.2d 800, 803 (App. Div. 1993), certification denied 134 N.J. 477, 634 A.2d 524 (1993) held that a structure includes a car or vehicle.

[FN9] See § 14.1.

[FN10] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b)(3).

[FN11] Cf. MPC § 220.1 which does not include the burning of property to collect insurance within the scope of arson unless a building, occupied structure or a person is placed in danger.

[FN12] 1997 N.J. Laws ch. 109.

[FN13] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b)(4). The offense is aggravated arson if there is the additional element that the defendant acted under circumstances which recklessly placed a person other than the defendant in danger of death or bodily injury. See N.J.S.A. 2C:14-1(a)(4). See § 13.1.

[FN14] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b)(5). If the defendant acts purposely instead of recklessly, it is aggravated arson. N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(a)(5). See § 13.1.

[FN15] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(f).

[FN16] State v. Jovanovic, 174 N.J.Super. 435, 440, 416 A.2d 961, 964 (Resen.1980), affirmed 181 N.J.Super. 97, 436 A.2d 938 (App. Div. 1981).

[FN17] N.J.S.A. 2C:12-1(b)(8).

The Code of Criminal Justice has created the separate offenses of aggravated arson, a second degree crime; arson a third degree crime; and arson for consideration, a first degree crime.
(A) Starting a Fire or Causing an Explosion

The state must first prove that the defendant started a fire or caused an explosion. The Code enlarges the concept of arson to include explosions as well as fires. "Starting a fire" or "causing an explosion" identifies the kind of behavior that the arson sections of the Code are prohibiting. Under the Code starting the fire is sufficient, there need be no burning. The offense occurs even if the fire is extinguished before there is significant damage. Under prior law there had to be an actual ignition to the building or structure.[ FN1] The purposeful lighting of a match is not sufficient. In order to obtain a conviction, there must be a purpose to start a fire other than the mere lighting of a match.[ FN2] Using a butane cigarette lighter and the extending of its flame with an aerosol spray from a can is not sufficient.[ FN3] For aggravated arson it makes no difference whether the property involved is the property of the defendant or another. Both are the subject of this offense.[ FN4]
(B) Placing Another Person in Danger of Death or Bodily Injury

There are five types of aggravated arson. For the first type of aggravated arson it must be proved that the defendant purposely or knowingly placed another person in danger of death or bodily injury.[ FN5] The type of property that is being burned is not material. In addition it must be another person and not merely the defendant himself who is placed in danger. The defendant may be convicted of arson for starting a fire that directly targets another person. The state did not have to prove there was a building or structure which was set afire It is sufficient that they set a person on fire directly.[ FN6] The mere starting of a fire that places another in danger of death or bodily injury is not sufficient to obtain a conviction. The state must prove either that the defendant had a purpose to place another in danger or knew that it would cause the danger. A reckless act must be prosecuted as a lesser offense.[ FN7] Under this section a person could be prosecuted even if he burns or causes his own property to explode if he purposely or knowingly places another in danger.
(C) Purpose to Destroy the Building or Structure of Another

In the second type of aggravated arson the state, in addition to proving the starting of the fire or the causing of the explosion, must prove that the defendant did the act with the purpose of destroying a building or structure of another.[ FN8] A structure means any structure, vehicle, boat, airplane, or place adapted for overnight accommodation of persons or for carrying on a business therein whether or not the owner is actually present.[ FN9] Building is designed to mean a structure which is capable of occupancy. An abandoned shack in an isolated area is not the subject for an arson prosecution under this section. For this particular offense of aggravated arson the purpose must be to destroy the property of another. Destroying one's own property will not suffice for a conviction under this section. Property of another is given a broad definition. Property is property of another if anyone other than the defendant has a possessory or legal or equitable proprietary interest in it. Examples of situations in which others have a legal or equitable interest in the property are mortgages, pledges, liens or security interests.[ FN10] As a consequence, property will be that of another even if the defendant has title to the property but the other is a lawful occupant.[ FN11] If a building is divided into separate occupied units, any unit not occupied by the defendant is an occupied structure of another.[ FN12] While a defendant can not be convicted under this section for burning his own property if he hires a person to burn his own property, such as a motor vehicle, he can be convicted as an accomplice of that person.[ FN13]
(D) Purpose to Collect Insurance and Recklessly Place Another Person in Danger of Death or Bodily Injury

In the third type of aggravated arson, in addition to proving that the defendant started the fire or caused the explosion, the state must prove two additional elements. First, it was done for the purpose of collecting insurance for the destruction or damage to such property.[ FN14] Second, it was done under circumstances that recklessly placed another person in danger of death or bodily injury.[ FN15] For this offense, it need not be a building or structure that is being burned. For example, it could be crops, a stock of merchandise or the contents of an apartment. Even if the purpose of the burning was to defraud the insurance company, the offense is still not elevated to aggravated arson unless there was a substantial risk that another person would be placed in danger of death or bodily injury, and the defendant consciously disregarded that risk.[ FN16] It should be noted that there are two separate standards of culpability for two of the elements of this offense. There is a purposeful conduct required for the collecting of the insurance, and there is reckless conduct required for the placing of another in danger of death or bodily injury.
(E) Purpose to Exempt Property From Zoning Law Regulation, Ordinance or Enactment and Recklessly Place Another Person in Danger of Death or Bodily Injury

In 1997, the Code was amended to add two additional types of aggravated arson offenses.[ FN17] For this aggravated arson offense, the state must prove three additional elements. In addition to proving that the defendant started the fire or caused the explosion, the state must prove that defendant acted with the purpose of destroying or damaging a structure in order to exempt the structure, completely or partially, from the provisions of any State, county or local zoning, planning or building law, regulation, ordinance or enactment. In addition, the state must prove that the defendant acted under circumstances which recklessly placed a person other than the defendant in danger of death or bodily injury.[ FN18] There are the two separate culpabilities which the state must prove. There is a purposeful conduct required to exempt the property from the zoning law, and there is reckless conduct required for the placing of another in danger of death or bodily injury.
(F) Purpose to Destroy or Damage a Forest

For what this aggravated arson offense, the state must prove one additional element. In addition to proving that the defendant started the fire or caused the explosion, the state must prove the additional element that the defendant acted with the purpose of destroying or damaging a forest.[ FN19] For purposes of this offense, a "forest" means and includes any forest, brush land, grass land, salt marsh, wooded area and any combination of these types of lands. This includes, but is not limited to, an open space area, public lands, wetlands, park lands, natural habitats, a State conservation area, a wildlife refuge area or any designated undeveloped open space whether or not it is subject to specific protection under law.[ FN20] The state does not have to prove that the forest was damaged or destroyed.
(G) Intoxication

Often in an arson prosecution a claim will be made that the setting of the fire occurred while the defendant was intoxicated. Intoxication under the Code is a defense to an offense which requires purposeful conduct.[ FN21] If the defendant were intoxicated, the state may obtain a conviction under the section of the law that requires a culpability less than purposeful. However even for simple arson, the state would have to prove that the defendant purposely set the fire or caused the explosion, but it would not have to prove that the defendant purposely or knowingly placed another in danger of death or bodily injury.[ FN22]
(H) Multiple Convictions, Merger and Lesser Included Offenses

The Legislature has designated fire setting offenses separately from other forms of assaultive conduct; it has intended to fractionalize the offense.[ FN23] A defendant, who firebombed a building in order to injure a rival, caused the death of a child and injured six other persons. The aggravated arson conviction did not merge with either the manslaughter or the six aggravated assaults.[ FN24] In addition, the offenses of aggravated arson and first degree arson may be fractionalized. A defendant who accepted money to burn a building and a few months later burned the building was convicted of first degree arson and aggravated arson.[ FN25] If an emergency services personnel is injured as a result of the aggravated arson, the defendant may also be convicted of aggravated assault.[ FN26] In a prosecution for aggravated arson the offenses of criminal mischief and improper behavior based on reckless behavior need not be submitted to the jury as lesser included offenses if there is no evidence to rationally support a culpability of recklessness. In addition, if the only evidence is that the aggravated arson occurred because the defendant ordered the fire to be set to endanger a person there need not be submission to the jury of criminal mischief based on purposely causing damage to property. Setting fire to a building with the purpose of endangering a police officer inside is not merely the petty disorderly persons offense of causing a public inconvenience.[ FN27]
(I) Sentencing

(i) Health Care Facility of Physician's Office

In 1992, the Code was amended to provide that if any person is convicted of aggravated arson and the structure which was the target of the offense is a health care facility or a physician's office then the sentence imposed must include a term of imprisonment. The court may not suspend the sentence or make any other non-custodial disposition.[ FN28] "Health care facility" means the facility or institution whether public or private, engaged principally in providing services for health maintenance organizations, diagnosis of treatment of human disease, pain, injury, deformity or physical condition, including, but not limited to, a general hospital, special hospital, mental hospital, public health center, diagnostic center, treatment center, rehabilitation center, extended care facility, skilled nursing home, nursing home, intermediate care facility, tuberculosis hospital, chronic disease hospital, maternity hospital, outpatient clinic, dispensary, home health care agency, residential health care facility and bioanalytical laboratory or central services facility serving one or more such institutions but excluding institutions that provide healing solely by prayer. Excluded are bioanalytical laboratories, as are independently owned and operated, and are not owned, operated, managed or controlled, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly by any one or more health care facilities, and the predominant source of business of which is not by contract with health care facilities within the State of New Jersey and which solicit or accept specimens and operate predominantly in interstate commerce.[ FN29]
(ii) No Early Release

Aggravated Arson is a No early Release Act Offense (NERA). The defendant must serve 85% of the sentence before being eligible for release on parole.[ FN30]
(J) Material Elements

For aggravated arson the state must prove at least three material elements. First, it must prove that the defendant started a fire or caused an explosion. For the second material element the state must prove one of five alternatives. It would have to prove that the defendant placed another person in danger of death or bodily injury; or it would have to prove that the defendant burned a building or structure; or it would have to prove that the defendant acted with the purpose of collecting insurance. Under the first alternative of placing another person in danger of death or bodily injury, the state would also have to prove that the defendant acted purposefully or knowingly. Under the second alternative of destroying a building or structure of another, the state would also have to prove that the defendant acted purposefully. Under the third alternative that the defendant acted with a purpose of collecting insurance, the state would also have to prove that the defendant acted under circumstances which placed another person in danger of death or bodily injury as well as the additional element that he did so recklessly. Under the fourth alternative the state must prove three additional material elements. First, the defendant acted with the purpose of destroying or damaging a structure in order to exempt the structure, completely or partially, from the provisions of any State, county or local zoning, planning or building law, regulation, ordinance or enactment. Second the defendant placed another person in danger of death or bodily injury. Third the defendant did so recklessly. Under the fifth alternative in addition to proving that the defendant started the fire or caused the explosion, the state must prove the additional element that the defendant acted with the purpose of destroying or damaging a forest.
[FNa0] Of the New Jersey Bar.


[FN1] State v. Morris, 98 N.J.L. 621, 625, 121 A. 290, 291 (Sup. Ct. 1923), affirmed per curiam 99 N.J.L. 526, 124 A. 926 (E. & A.1924).

[FN2] State v. M.N., 267 N.J.Super. 482, 490, 631 A.2d 1267, 1272 (App. Div. 1993).

[FN3] State, ex rel. M.C., 335 N.J.Super. 325, 762 A.2d 309 (App. Div. 2000).

[FN4] State, ex rel. M.C., 335 N.J.Super. 325, 762 A.2d 309 (App. Div. 2000).

[FN5] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(a); State v. Lewis, 223 N.J.Super. 145, 152, 538 A.2d 399, 403 (App. Div. 1988), certification denied 111 N.J. 584, 546 A.2d 510 (1988).

[FN6] State v. Arenas, 363 N.J.Super. 1,7, 830 A.2d 502 (App. Div. 2003), certification denied 178 N.J. 452, 841 A.2d 90 (2004).

[FN7] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b)(1).

[FN8] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(a)(2).

[FN9] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(e) and N.J.S.A. 2C:18-1 were amended to delete the word "occupied" before "structure."

[FN10] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(f). In 1997, the definition of property was expanded

[FN11] Report of the New Jersey Criminal Law Revision Commission; New Jersey Penal Code: Commentary (1971), p. 206.

[FN12] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(e).

[FN13] State v. Williams, 263 N.J.Super. 620, 630, 623 A.2d 800 (App. Div. 1993), certification denied 134 N.J. 477, 634 A.2d 524 (1993).

[FN14] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(a)(3).

[FN15] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(a)(3).

[FN16] See N.J.S.A. 2C:2-2(b)(3), which defines reckless.

[FN17] 1997 N.J. Laws ch. 109, effective June 1, 1997.

[FN18] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(a)(4).

[FN19] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(a)(5).

[FN20] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(f).

[FN21] State v. Cameron, 104 N.J. 42, 52, 514 A.2d 1302, 1307 (1986); see § 2.8.

[FN22] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b) and N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(b)(1). Recklessness will suffice for criminal mischief.

[FN23] State v. Lewis, 223 N.J.Super. 145, 152, 538 A.2d 399, 402 (App. Div. 1988), certification denied 111 N.J. 584, 546 A.2d 510 (1988).

[FN24] State v. Lewis, 223 N.J.Super. 145, 152, 538 A.2d 399, 402 (App. Div. 1988), certification denied 111 N.J. 584, 546 A.2d 510 (1988).

[FN25] State v. Allison 208 N.J.Super. 9, 26, 504 A.2d 1184, 1193 (App. Div. 1985), certification denied 102 N.J. 370, 508 A.2d 235 (1985).

[FN26] N.J.S.A. 2C:12-1(b)(8).

[FN27] State v. Figueroa, 237 N.J.Super. 215, 219-220, 567 A.2d 269, 271 (App. Div. 1989), certification denied 121 N.J. 643, 583 A.2d 334 (1990).

[FN28] 1991 N.J. Laws ch. 498. N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(e).

[FN29] N.J.S.A. 2C:17-1(f); 26:2H-2(a).

[FN30] N.J.S.A. 2C:43-7.2(11).

Follow John on twitter @jabalaw

The criminal defense attorneys at the Law Offices of John F. Marshall represent New Jersey adult and juvenile clients from offices in Shrewsbury, Cranford, Toms River, Jersey City and New Brunswick. We provide prompt and convenient client service to people in such communities as Newark, Plainfield, Freehold, Eatontown, East Brunswick, Edison, Woodbridge, Westfield, Clark, Rahway, Piscataway, Sayreville, Elizabeth, Middletown, Asbury Park, Long Branch, Jackson, Lakewood, Point Pleasant, Edison, Old Bridge, Aberdeen, Linden, Belmar, Eatontown, Hazlet, Holmdel, Ocean, Sea Bright, Hoboken, Weehawken, Seaside Park, Seaside Heights, Tinton Falls, Wall, Brick, Dover, Jackson, and other locations in Monmouth County, Middlesex County, Union County, Ocean County, Burlington County, Mercer County, Essex County, Hudson County and Morris County.

Privacy Policy | Business Development Solutions by FindLaw, a Thomson Reuters business.